SZ/CSA

THE CHIEF SCIENTIFIC ADVISER, 1934-1990

Contains 199 files

SZ/CSA/1 SHAPEX 61, 1961

SZ/CSA/2 Advisory Council on Scientific Policy - meetings and correspondence arising, 1960-64

SZ/CSA/3 Advisory Council on Scientific Policy - meetings and correspondence arising, 1964

SZ/CSA/4 Advisory Council on Scientific Policy Scientific Manpower Committee - meetings and correspondence arising, 1960-65

SZ/CSA/5 Committee on Research into Natural Resources, 1960-64

SZ/CSA/6 Committee on Overseas Scientific Relations, 1961-65

SZ/CSA/7 Proportion of Technicians Engaged in Research, 1961

SZ/CSA/8 Recruitment of Scientists in North America, 1961-64

SZ/CSA/9 Scientific and Technical Register, 1961

SZ/CSA/10 Nuclear Warfare, 1961-62

SZ/CSA/11 Evidence to the Robbins Committee on Higher Education, 1961-63

SZ/CSA/12 Appointments to the Scientific Manpower Committee, 1962

SZ/CSA/13 Joint Enquiry on Technicians, 1961-64

SZ/CSA/14 Scientific Manpower Committee - correspondence with university appointments boards, 1962-63

SZ/CSA/15 Evidence to the Trend Committee on Civil Science, 1962-64

SZ/CSA/16 Advisory Council on Scientific Policy Scientific Manpower Committee - scientific manpower report, 1962-63

SZ/CSA/17 Natural Resources Research Council, 1964

SZ/CSA/18 Miscellaneous Publications and Lectures, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/19 SHAPEX 61 Paper Limitations to Human Judgement and Control, 1961-64

SZ/CSA/20 John Kendrew’s RUSI Lecture 1962, 1962

SZ/CSA/21 SZ’s Talk to the Bow Group 1962, 1962

SZ/CSA/22 SZ’s Article for the Air Ministry Journal 1963, 1962-63

SZ/CSA/23 Society of Environmental Engineers Symposium and Exhibition, 1963

SZ/CSA/24 SZ’s Contribution to the Indian Defence Science Journal 1963, 1963

SZ/CSA/25 Invitations to Lecture at the RAF Staff College, Andover 1963-66

SZ/CSA/26 Speech to Old Students’ Association, University College Hospital 1965, 1965

SZ/CSA/27 Horizon BBC TV Programme on Prof. Bernal and the Tots and Quots 1966, 1938-1966

SZ/CSA/28 Sunday Telegraph Interview Regarding the 1965 British Association Meeting, 1965

SZ/CSA/29 British Transport Staff College Talk 1967, 1966-67

SZ/CSA/30 Address to the 10th Anniversary Meeting of the NATO Science Committee, 1968

SZ/CSA/31 International Conference on Oil Pollution of the Sea, 1968

SZ/CSA/32 Notes of Presentation to the Defence Board, 1961

SZ/CSA/33 Ministry of Defence - central organisation, 1949, 1963

SZ/CSA/34 Ministry of Aviation - reorganisation, 1964-65

SZ/CSA/35 Ministry of Defence - central organisation miscellanea, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/36 Letters of Congratulation to and from SZ, 1964-66

SZ/CSA/37 The Ditchley Foundation, 1963-66

SZ/CSA/38 Miscellaneous Invitations, 1963-65

SZ/CSA/39 Miscellaneous Invitations, 1966

SZ/CSA/40 International Centre of Generalisation, Paris, 1964

SZ/CSA/41 Visit to Daresbury Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 1965

SZ/CSA/42 The Countryside in 1970 Conference, 1965-66

SZ/CSA/43 Compendium of Quotations, Geneva, 1962

SZ/CSA/44 Talks with Prof. Lachs on Disarmament, 1962

SZ/CSA/45 Co-ordinating Machinery for the Scientific Civil Service, 1964

SZ/CSA/46 Article by Michael Shanks, 1963

SZ/CSA/47 Administration of the Ministry of Defence, 196?

SZ/CSA/48 Agreements with the Ministry of Defence, 196?

SZ/CSA/49 Anglo-American Relations, 196?

SZ/CSA/50 Atlantic College, 1963-65

SZ/CSA/51 Blue Water Nuclear Missile - effects of cancellation, 1965

SZ/CSA/52 Aircraft-carriers, 1963-1990

SZ/CSA/53 Catamaran Vessels, 1963-65

SZ/CSA/54 Commonwealth Advisory Committee on Defence Science, 1961

SZ/CSA/55 Defence Research Policy Committee, 196?

SZ/CSA/56 Defence Review 1966, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/57 Dieldrin - use of toxic chemicals in agriculture, 1963

SZ/CSA/58 East of Suez Policy - C. Mayhew, 1966

SZ/CSA/59 F-111, 1963-68

SZ/CSA/60 Ferranti Ltd, 1963-64

SZ/CSA/61 Foreign Office - minimum deterrent force, 1966

SZ/CSA/62 Fuel Cells and Propulsion, 1962-65

SZ/CSA/63 Grosseto Airfield, Italy, 1965

SZ/CSA/64 Indian R&D Technology for Defence (Brig. Chakravarti), 1966

SZ/CSA/65 Proposal for International Centre, Covent Garden, 1963-64

SZ/CSA/66 President Kennedy’s Visit to London 1963, 1963

SZ/CSA/67 Killian Commission, 1961-63

SZ/CSA/68 Labour Party Foreign Policy and Defence, 1960

SZ/CSA/69 Management, 196?

SZ/CSA/70 Multi-lateral Force, 1962-64

SZ/CSA/71 NATO, 1962-67

SZ/CSA/72 Natural Resources Advisory Committee, 196?

SZ/CSA/73 Naval Warfare Panel Problems, 1963

SZ/CSA/74 Needles in Space, 1963

SZ/CSA/75 Nuclear Defence Weapons, 196?

SZ/CSA/76 Central Responsibility in Nuclear Policy, 1965

SZ/CSA/77 Publicity Following the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963

SZ/CSA/78 The P.1154 Aircraft, 1963-68

SZ/CSA/79 Pension Rights of Scientists in United States Government, Industry, and Universities, 1960-65

SZ/CSA/80 Personal Official Papers, 196?

SZ/CSA/81 Polaris, 1962-64

SZ/CSA/82 Cuttings Relating to the R&D Costs of Polaris. 1964?

SZ/CSA/83 Talks with the Polish Ambassador, Dr Rodzinski, 1963-67

SZ/CSA/84 Pugwash Conference, 1961

SZ/CSA/85 Reorganisation of the Service and Defence Ministries, 1956-63

SZ/CSA/86 Draft Programme for the Proposed Working Party on the Co-ordination of Research and Development, 1966

SZ/CSA/87 SHAPEX 61 Talk - drafts, 1961?

SZ/CSA/88 Skybolt, 1961

SZ/CSA/89 Southern Observatory, 196?

SZ/CSA/90 Staff, 196?

SZ/CSA/91 Notes on Talks with Dr Stikker, 1963

SZ/CSA/92 STOCKTAKE Meetings, 1960-63

SZ/CSA/93 Tactical Nuclear Weapons - SZ’s Twenty Propositions, 1962-63

SZ/CSA/94 Tattoos, 1965

SZ/CSA/95 TSR-2, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/96 TSR-2 - vulnerability to low level defence, 1964

SZ/CSA/97 United States Institute for Defence Analysis, 196?

SZ/CSA/98 The War Game, 1966

SZ/CSA/99 Correspondents A, 1956-1971

SZ/CSA/100 Correspondents B, 1934-1981

SZ/CSA/101 Correspondents C, 1959-1978

SZ/CSA/102 Correspondents D, 1960-1978

SZ/CSA/103 Correspondents E, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/104 Correspondents F, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/105 Correspondents G, 1959-1966

SZ/CSA/106 Correspondents H, 1959-1968

SZ/CSA/107 Correspondents J, 1961-1983

SZ/CSA/108 Correspondents K, 1960-66

SZ/CSA/109 Correspondents L, 1960-67

SZ/CSA/110 Correspondents M, 1959-1968

SZ/CSA/111 Correspondents N, 1965

SZ/CSA/112 Correspondents O, 1961-67

SZ/CSA/113 Correspondents P, 1956-1969

SZ/CSA/114 Correspondents R, 1960-67

SZ/CSA/115 Correspondents S, 1960-1982

SZ/CSA/116 Correspondents T, 1960-68

SZ/CSA/117 Correspondents W, 1945-1967

SZ/CSA/118 Correspondents Y, 1960-62

SZ/CSA/119 Correspondence with Dr A.H. Zimmerman, 1960-63

SZ/CSA/120 Aircraft, 1970

SZ/CSA/121 Anglo-French Aviation Collaboration, 1966-1970

SZ/CSA/122 Correspondence with Admiral Rickover, 196?

SZ/CSA/123 Papers About Admiral Rickover, 1959-1965

SZ/CSA/124 Test Ban Treaty Correspondence, 196?

SZ/CSA/125 Correspondence with the Prime Minister, 1964-1971

SZ/CSA/126 Correspondence with H.P. Robertson, 1950-1963

SZ/CSA/127 John Stack’s Papers, 1966

SZ/CSA/128 Miscellaneous U.S. Correspondence, 1961-65

SZ/CSA/129 Miscellaneous U.S. Correspondence, 1966-67

SZ/CSA/130 Miscellaneous U.S. Correspondence, 1968-69

SZ/CSA/131 Miscellaneous U.S. Correspondence 1969-1971

SZ/CSA/132 Correspondence with I.I. Rabi, 1962-66

SZ/CSA/133 Correspondence with Jerome Wiesner, 1961-66

SZ/CSA/134 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1961

SZ/CSA/135 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1962

SZ/CSA/136 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence 1963

SZ/CSA/137 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1964

SZ/CSA/138 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1965, 1964-66

SZ/CSA/139 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1966, 1957-1967

SZ/CSA/140 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1967

SZ/CSA/141 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1968, 1967-68

SZ/CSA/142 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1969, 1968-69

SZ/CSA/143 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1970, 1969-1976

SZ/CSA/144 Miscellaneous Personal Correspondence, 1971

SZ/CSA/145 Correspondence with Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, 1970-71 Closed

SZ/CSA/146 Correspondence with Sir T. Morrison-Scott, 1967-1983

SZ/CSA/147 Correspondence with Paul Willert and Thomas Bunzl, 1967-1970

SZ/CSA/148 Correspondence with Gerard F. Bauer, 1967-69

SZ/CSA/149 Correspondence with Christopher Layton, 1967

SZ/CSA/150 Correspondence with Mr Hugh Cudlipp, 1967

SZ/CSA/151 Correspondence with W.J. Tarver, 1969

SZ/CSA/152 Investigations in Loch Ness, 1961-66

SZ/CSA/153 Nord-Aviation and Missile Development, 1963-65

SZ/CSA/154 Ministry of Technology, 1964

SZ/CSA/154a Ministry of Industrial Technology and Supply, 1957-1969

SZ/CSA/155 Trend Report, 1963

SZ/CSA/156 Weather Rockets, 1963

SZ/CSA/157 International Co-operation in Research and Development, 1964-65

SZ/CSA/158 Co-ordination of Advice, 1963-64

SZ/CSA/159 Prison Security, 1966 Closed

SZ/CSA/160 Scientists and Engineers, 1966

SZ/CSA/161 Wageningen Agricultural University, 1964-67

SZ/CSA/162 Central Advisory Council for Science and Technology - setting up of the Council, 1966

SZ/CSA/163 Torrey Canyon, 1967-1971

SZ/CSA/164 Income Tax Relief for Educational Expenses, 1965-66

SZ/CSA/165 Agricultural Work Study and Ergonomics, 1966-67

SZ/CSA/166 Taxation - correspondence with E.M. Behrens, R.D. Young and the Treasury, 1967

SZ/CSA/167 Select Committee on Science and Technology - inquiry into defence R&D, 1968

SZ/CSA/168 Atlantic Salmon Research Trust, 1967-1970

SZ/CSA/169 Electronics – A New Basis for Procurement (Plessey report), 1967

SZ/CSA/170 Aldabra, 1967

SZ/CSA/171 Stansted, 1967

SZ/CSA/172 Foot-and-Mouth Disease, 1967-68

SZ/CSA/173 Computers: ICT/English Electric and European industry, 1967-68

SZ/CSA/174 Support for the Pugwash Movement, 1967-1972

SZ/CSA/175 Investment Grants, 1967-68

SZ/CSA/176 Bedford College, 1968-1971

SZ/CSA/177 Weather Vane - visit to HMS Sultan, 1967-69

SZ/CSA/178 Irradiation Disinfestation of Grain, 1968

SZ/CSA/179 Rowntree Legal Research Unit, 1968-69

SZ/CSA/180 Central Advisory Council Study of Technological Innovation, 1968-69

SZ/CSA/181 Educational Television - Ford Foundation papers, 1968

SZ/CSA/182 Flat TV Displays, 1968-1970

SZ/CSA/183 University of East Anglia, 1967-1970

SZ/CSA/184 Relations Between MAFF and ARC, 1953-1970

SZ/CSA/185 C.D. de F. Hedges - Co-ordination of sea and land transport, 1969-1970

SZ/CSA/186 University of Reading - arrangements for overseas students, 1969-1970

SZ/CSA/187 Articles by Mr Gvishiani, 1969-1971

SZ/CSA/188 Use of Dogs to Detect Metals and Explosives, 1955-1970

SZ/CSA/189 Science-based Industries in the United States, 1967-69

SZ/CSA/190 Nuclear Power/Coal, 1966-67

SZ/CSA/191 SALT, 1969

SZ/CSA/192 Skybolt, 1960-1963

SZ/CSA/193 Miscellaneous Invitations 1967, 1965-67

SZ/CSA/194 Miscellaneous Invitations 1968, 1967-68

SZ/CSA/195 Miscellaneous Invitations 1969, 1968-1970

SZ/CSA/196 Miscellaneous Invitations 1970, 1969-1971

SZ/CSA/197 Miscellaneous Invitations 1971, 1970-71

SZ/CSA/198 Visit to India March 1971, 1967-1971

In the early summer of 1959, while in the United Sates as a visiting professor at the California Institute of Technology, SZ received a letter from the Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Defence (MoD), Sir Richard Powell, asking if he would accept the post of Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry. The present incumbent, Sir Frederick Brundrett, was due to retire at the end of the year.

The choice of SZ was not surprising. Since 1942, when he and his friend Desmond Bernal were recruited by Lord Louis Mountbatten to Combined Operations Headquarters, he had been associated with matters military. In the post-war period he had directed research into the biological effects of blast from nuclear explosions (see Series SZ/BUF), and the design of body armour and the wound ballistics of small arms ammunition, and the detection of land-mines (see series SZ/MOW/1-3). Since 1946 he had been deputy chairman of the ACSP (see Series SZ/ACSP). He was also a member of a number of other advisory bodies. In 1958-1959 he chaired a special group set up by the Air Ministry, the Strategic Scientific Policy Committee, the chief task of which was to consider the future of the British nuclear deterrent (see Series AMSSP). He was, by 1959, a familiar figure in Whitehall with a proven track record.

While SZ was, according to his own account, agonising over whether or not to accept the post, the former Lord Louis Mountbatten, now Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Chief of the Naval Staff, was preparing to take up the role of Chief of the Defence Staff. Unlike SZ he was not afflicted by indecision and made it clear that he wanted to have SZ at his side, and presumably on his side, at the MoD.

SZ lived through interesting times at the MoD. The Ministry of the early 1960s was a mare’s nest of territorial infighting between the Services and project cancellations. The political background was fraught. SZ’s first minister, Duncan Sandys, was firmly aligned with a strategy based on missiles rather than manned aircraft, and deeply disliked in some quarters. The next, Harold Watkinson, struggled to keep the TSR-2 aircraft project alive; his reward was inclusion among those friends whom the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, laid down to save his own (political) life. The third, and the last of the Conservative Ministers of Defence whom SZ served, was Peter Thorneycroft, whose cross was the Skybolt missile.

In 1964 in came a Labour government. SZ’s empire was expanded with his appointment to the dual role of CSA to the MoD and to HM Government as a whole, and head of the scientific civil service. He had achieved a status comparable with the two colossi among scientific advisers, Lord Cherwell and Sir Henry Tizard. The Labour government also brought Dennis Healey to the MoD. He and SZ did not hit it off. The 1965 Defence Review marked the parting of the ways and thereafter SZ operated full-time from the Cabinet Office.

At the Cabinet Office defence, and more especially disarmament, remained major concerns for SZ. He was also now in a more favourable position to promote his own ideas on the organisation of government research. The ACSP went and a Central Advisory Council for Science and Technology (CACST) with broader terms of reference was eventually established, which SZ chaired. The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research was abolished and the research council system overhauled.

A long-time concern of SZ’s had been the maintenance of a regular supply of well-qualified scientists, engineers and technicians. Elaborate plans were made for higher technological education, strongly influenced by North American models. The Special Institutions for Scientific and Technological Education and Research (SISTERS) were a case in point; SZ wanted Britain to have its own MITs.

Between 1964 and his official retirement in 1971 SZ was the government’s scientific trouble-shooter. His role in dealing with the environmental crisis resulting from the grounding of the oil tanker Torrey Canyon in March 1967 is reminiscent of his activities in World War II. Two years later he was urging draconian measures to prevent an outbreak of rabies. He led an enquiry into the organisation of scientific services in NHS hospitals.

The papers in the series described in this guide reflect the variety of issues with which a scientific adviser has to deal; some, like the proliferation of nuclear weapons, of literally earth-shattering dimensions, some simply bizarre. A chief scientific adviser, especially a high-profile one, is a soft target for those given to writing letters characterised by heavy underlining and the use of multi-coloured inks. They also reflect the extraordinary range and complexity of SZ’s multi-national personal network – politicians from both right and left, experts on every subject under the sun, thinkers and doers.

Two strands in particular run through these papers: the quest for an abatement, if not an abolition, of the nuclear arms race; and the U.S./U.K. ‘special relationship'. SZ epitomized the latter and he achieved some small success with the former in the shape of the Partial Test-Ban Treaty of 1963.

A separate and more detailed guide to the contents of this series is available in print (price £3 inclusive) from the Archives Department, or online at the UEA Library website. Series SZ/CSA is also catalogued to item level in the Zuckerman Archive online public access catalogue.